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##         Disincent
ivizing Double-Spend
ing by Making it Unp
rofitable         ##
ng Group][17]
ly, 2017



ntly reduced likelih
ood of double-spendi
ng attacks on 0-conf
uld open a whole new
 realm of possibilit
ies for Bitcoin busi
 Proofs and Payment
Channels provide par
t of the solution bu
re complex new funct
ionality to be built
 on top of the Bitco
ose a fee market sol
ution to the double-
spending problem usi
pair the economic pr
ofits of the adversa
ry. Miners are drive
revenue by preferrin
g to confirm the sub
set of all unconfirm
) that pays the most
 in fees. This unwri
tten rule can be use
umvent competing TXs
. As long as miners
remain greedy, we ca
uble-spending TX by
spawning a Child-Pay
s-for-Parent (CPFP)
. The adversary coul
d respond with the s
ame but that would l
re the whole TX cont
ains only fees for t
he miners. Convenien
uble-spend defense m
echanism does not re
quire any change to
sus protocol and min
ers would be happy t
o get those extra fe

nconfirmed Bitcoin p
ayments has become a
 common habit in the
ven though Satoshi N
akamoto solved the d
ouble-spending probl
[^1], unconfirmed TX
s could still be eas
n sectors where cust
omer satisfaction is
 of utmost importanc
ouble-spending does
not pose an existent
ial threat to the bu
easonable to provide
 service without wai
ting for the first c
itcoin network. The
businesses that deli
ver service for 0-co
to minimize their lo
sses in case of doub
le-spend fraud. Pree
mptive measures such
stomer to provide a
competitive fee for
double-spending rath
er well. However, wh
en the adversary out
initial payment in t
heir double-spending
 TX the attack often
 succeeds. A certain
 has been accepted a
 is needed is a mech
anism for damage-con
trol when a double-s
n broadcast to the B
itcoin network and i
s now waiting for a
in the next block. I
n this paper, we pro
pose a solution to t
lem using a CPFP[^2]
 TX to outbid the fe
e of a competing TX
unds of the initial
TX have been spent o
n fees. Therefore, t
he economic incentiv
e to double-spend in
 the first place. Th
able as long as the
adversary is not a m
iner and miners in g
e next section we wi
ll examine more clos
ely the problems tha
ng 0-confirmation pa
yments. We then desc
ribe the solution at
 explain the concept
 without too many in
dustrial details. Fo
clined readers we la
ter give the technic
al details. Finally,
 potential business
benefits of the give
n solution and concl
### Problem Definiti

s accepts 0-confirma
tion payments and im
mediately provides t
roduct or service it
 creates incentive f
or malicious actors
that unconfirmed TXs
 are not final. In f
act, unconfirmed TXs
sed even by non-mine
nos that accept Bitc
oin payments are per
haps the most popula
-spenders because in
 the gambling busine
ss the competition f
rces everyone to acc
ept unconfirmed depo
sit TXs. After all,
he casino that provi
des the best user ex
perience. If a malic
will not launch a do
uble-spend attack so
 they could safely w
 However, if the cus
tomer loses before t
he initial TX gets t
n then they execute
the double-spending
attack in hope of re
eo games where there
 are in-game purchas
es it is also expect
at their payments ar
e accepted immediate
ly and that they rec
oods or services in
real time. In the co
ntext of such video
more sense to accept
 0-confirmation paym
ents because double-
se significant econo
mic losses to the bu
siness. In the worst
ouble-spender would
just annoy honest pl
ayers. However, sinc
ty of nodes delibera
tely refuse to relay
 double-spending TXs
ovider would most li
kely learn about the
 attack when most of
ady been done. If it
 was not the case th
en the malicious pla
from the game immedi
ately after they lau
ive video streaming
services are also a
good use case for ac
Bitcoin payments due
 to the fact that fo
r the service provid
er the resource that
merely bandwidth. Su
ch a business will m
nkrupt because of a
couple of streamers
who refuse to pay. H
ery much like to cut
 the scammer's video
 stream immediately
These were just a co
uple of examples whe
re accepting 0-confi
rmation payments has
ose businesses are c
urrently forced to h
andle double-spendin
itable loss. In the
next sections we des
cribe what businesse
d even penalize doub
High Level Solution

e currently dominant
 0-confirmation doub
le-spending preventi
nly accept the first
-seen TX as the vali
d one. Should anothe
onflicting with an e
xisting TX, then the
 newcomer is simply
out that in practice
 such a system does
not work as well as
ave wished[^3], so n
aturally people have
 started to seek for
ays for risk mitigat
most obvious startin
g point for any busi
ness that wishes to
g of unconfirmed pay
ments is to detect a
ny such attempts as
his allows the busin
ess to stop providin
g service to the bad
nd therefore it help
s to minimize losses
 double-spend attack
s is to rely on a th
ird party service su
ed by blockchain.inf
o[^6]. It is no way
a recommended soluti
s the fact that it c
an be done and that
ndeed become a norm
on the Bitcoin netwo
general approach is
to choose the right
kind of Bitcoin soft
itcoin XT has a buil
t-in mechanism for d
ouble-spend detectio
 cases the early det
ection of fraud is a
lready enough to dis
ing, there is no rea
son to stop here. Tu
rns out that it is p
double-spend for the
 adversary as long a
s the competing TX r
 work believe that s
ince double-spending
cannot be effectivel
y prevented, it shou
ld be embraced and t
n the next section w
e explain how natura
l miner greed can be
rpose of defending a
 payment after a dou
ble-spend has appear
hat is more, we reve
al that by embracing
 double-spending the
re known as Replace-
By-Fee[^7] (RBF) wou
ld no longer be just
Solution Details

ile the concept of o
utbidding competing
TXs by increasing th
e defending TX is ra
ther simple, it does
 come with a couple
rstly, the miners ar
e ought to optimize
their TX selection a
hest possible revenu
e. Secondly, network
 nodes should relay
*almost* as if they
 the following subse
ctions we briefly di
scuss the technical
med prerequisites. I
n the end, we presen
t the proposed solut
pending problem. It
will be discussed fr
om the engineering p
 the less-technical
reader we also provi
de the philosophical
#### Greedy Transact
ion Prioritization

miners prefer to con
firm the set of TXs
that pays the greate
can refer to such be
havior as healthy gr
eed and we can rely
ch set of TXs will m
ost likely get confi
rmed in the next blo
et of TXs can be vie
wed as a Traveling S
alesman Problem (TSP
o find a subset of a
ll unconfirmed TXs t
hat would not exceed
rrently 1 MB*) while
 paying as much in f
 there was not for C
PFP TXs in the set o
f all unconfirmed TX
et of unconfirmed TX
s descendingly by fe
e per byte would be
ich TXs will most li
kely be confirmed in
 the next block. How
 such simplistic sor
ting to become ineff
ective in cases wher
ins begin with many
low-fee TXs but end
s of prioritizing TX
s in such a way can
challenging similarl
y to the TSP, we kno
w most certainly tha
at is more, the resu
lts would remain mos
tly uniform across a
s well with the Xtre
me Thinblocks[^9] te
chnology developed b
aying Double-Spendin
g Transactions

hough double-spend T
Xs are already relay
ed by the Bitcoin XT
itcoin protocol, the
re is a growing tend
ency for other imple
dd support for relay
ing double-spends. S
uch a tendency is ma
arket demand because
 more and more busin
esses rely on 0-conf
vidently exposes the
m to double-spending
ouble-spends is slow
ly losing relevancy.
 Even the infamous[^
elopment team has in
directly endorsed do
uble-spending by add
l opt-in RBF[^7] klu
dge to their particu
lar implementation o
In that case a speci
al subset of double-
spending TXs is give
e relayed by the Bit
coin Core nodes. Nam
ely, only the double
pay a higher fee tha
n their previous ver
ontain any new uncon
firmed inputs and co
mply to several othe
constraints are rela
e caveats to relayin
g double-spending TX
s is the fact that i
ode to various forms
 of Denial-of-Servic
e (DoS) attacks. To
ry could flood the n
etwork with a large
number of double-spe
 of them includes a
fee different from a
ll the others. If th
set of such maliciou
s double-spending TX
s is still higher th
n the set of regular
 unconfirmed TXs the
n the adversary woul
icked out all the re
gular TXs from the *
mempool* of every no
t sound like an argu
ment against relayin
g double-spending TX
 of an excuse of an
incompetent software
 architect than a va
. All popular full n
ode implementations
have their *mempools
fic capacity (*typic
ally 300 MiB by defa
ult[^12]*). They are
r dealing with a mas
sive flood of unconf
irmed TXs. Obviously
flooding mechanism c
ould be amended to d
eal with the excessi
Since it makes a lot
 of sense to treat b
andwidth as a resour
ce just like memory,
imit the TX throughp
ut of their immediat
etwork. Should any o
f the neighbors exce
ed the limit they co
spectively. The bott
om line is that from
 the free market's s
ouble-spending TXs i
s an intrinsic trait
. A good analogy in
fact that law does n
ot prevent criminals
 from using firearms
gun control gives th
e criminals an advan
tage in front of law
aking double-spendin
g available for ever
yone would also make
etwork more fair for
tbidding Competing T

olution proposed in
this paper implies t
hat double-spending
ed on the Bitcoin ne
twork so that the vi
ctim could quickly l
ting TX and its deta
ils. If the competin
g TX has a greater f
 original TX then th
e receiver of the or
iginal TX could spaw
ends even more of it
s input funds on the
 TX fee than the mal
 As a result, whiche
ver fork of the unco
nfirmed TX chain ult
atest fee per byte w
If the adversary con
trols a significant
portion of the globa
l hashing power then
ibed defense mechani
sm would be ineffect
ive. However, in thi
at the adversary doe
s not control such r
they did then even 1
-confirmation TXs wo
uld be unsafe to acc
lution is intended f
or cases where the t
ransmitted amount of
s than the effective
inimize the risk of
fraud even more, the
 payee could only pr
ces for 0-confirmati
on payments that ori
ginate from already
chains of unconfirme
d TXs should be trea
ted with care and no
ments because spawni
ng a CPFP TX at the
end of such a chain
plementation constra
ints of the full nod
e software. For exam
ter of an unconfirme
d TX chain cannot ex
ceed 25 in Bitcoin C
ng stops the adversa
ry from continuously
 increasing the fee
ng TX, it would only
 lead to the point w
here the TX fee beco
uble-spending no lon
ger pays off. The au
thors of this work b
at of double-spendin
g is significantly r
educed if there is n
t. In a way it works
 out just like Mutua
l Assured Destructio
ter Alternative to R

 block size limit of
 1 MB was met due to
 the increasing mark
space in 2016, TX fe
es started to rise d
ramatically. Since m
ade than Bitcoin min
ers could confirm, t
he backlog of unconf
e of ever clearing o
ut. As a result, peo
ple started to utili
X confirmation accel
f the ways to accele
rate TX confirmation
 is to increase its
od is useful for the
 TX receiver to acce
lerate its confirmat
popular way is to ut
ilize RBF. The latte
r is a special kind
 is *hard-coded* to
be relayed by the Bi
tcoin Core nodes. Ec
e wasteful to spawn
CPFP TXs than to dou
ble-spend in order t
e. That is because a
 CPFP TX itself will
 consume block space
lude a fee of its ow
n whereas a RBF-styl
e double-spend does
can see, there is ec
onomic incentive beh
ind making it possib
 speed up their conf
irmation time. Inter
estingly, long befor
y got full Bitcoin C
ore incorporated RBF
 to provide a way fo
ase the fee of a TX
that has already bee
n broadcast to the n
this hints for the i
ntentional preparati
on for full blocks a
 the ulterior motive
 of forcing Bitcoin
TXs into privately o
 payment hubs is up
to the reader to dec
re engineering the a
rchitectural beauty
of an application li
. If double-spending
 TXs were relayed by
 all nodes then the
 be necessary at all
. The respective cod
e could then be dele
e and thus a small p
art of the enormous
technical debt[^16]
s would be paid off.
ntisocial Behavior

 that sometimes the
absence of economic
incentive is *not* e
a double-spender. Th
is is correct. A mal
evolent customer mig
economic gain and co
uld still engage in
double-spending. Whe
r fun or due to a pe
rsonal grudge agains
t the merchant, such
he offender has alre
ady received service
 for the 0-confirmat
st likely have nothi
ng else to lose. Sur
e, the solution prop
ould make it impossi
ble for the adversar
y to reverse the pay
still initiate a dou
ble-spend attack to
ruin the deal for th
, such an antisocial
 behavior can be mad
e so costly for the
ill most likely not
want to initiate a d
ouble-spending compe
place. The trick her
e for the merchant i
s to ask for a pledg
 normal price of the
 product. Upon a suc
cessful transaction
ed to the customer b
ut in case of a doub
le-spend attack it w
e process of outbidd
ing the competing TX
nd currency exchange
s could utilize this
 security pattern by
ction of the 0-confi
rmation deposit to b
e immediately used u
hould that deposit l
ater get double-spen
t the bad actor woul
n what they were abl
e to use up in the c
ontext of the provid
y, the size of the p
ledge can be calibra
ted by each business
 the needs of any ri
usiness Benefits

is fairly trivial to
 see that if double-
spending of 0-confir
onomically unprofita
ble then more busine
sses could start acc
Xs as payments. This
 would naturally lea
d to greater profits
and smaller prices f
or the consumer. Aft
er all, it is the ho
re indirectly made r
esponsible for compe
nsating the revenue
# Summary

In this paper we pro
posed a novel approa
ch to mitigating the
0-confirmation doubl
e-spending payments
on the soft protocol
ith the technical pr
erequisites such as
double-spend relayin
prioritization. We t
hen introduced the c
oncept of outbidding
creasing the fee of
the original payment
. The latter is poss
elp of a Child-Pays-
for-Parent TX. Since
 such a trick could
e whole payment is s
pent on TX fees, it
is easy to see that
s nothing for the at
tacker to gain from
double-spending. Tha
ctively disincentivi
zed fraudulent doubl
e-spending of 0-conf
 Call to Action

ince there is no sci
entifically rigorous
 way to detect a fra
TX without knowing a
nything about the co
ntext of the TX all
TXs should be viewed
d relayed respective
ly. Ultimately, it w
ill be the miners wh
f the conflicting TX
s gets included in t
he next block. Thus,
ld view the set of u
nconfirmed TXs from
the miner's point of
f this work urge the
 full node operators
 to start seeking fo
 relaying double-spe
nding TXs. As for th
e Bitcoin miners, it
ed to optimize the T
X prioritization alg
profitable model pos

toshi Nakamoto, [Bit
coin: A Peer-to-Peer
 Electronic Cash Sys
 Bitcoin Core 0.13.0
, [More intelligent
transaction selectio
n for mining][2], 20
, [Double spending i
Double Spend Bitcoin
XT, [Notable feature
s in XT: Double spen
:, [
^7]: Bitcoin Core 0.
12.0, [Opt-in RBF FA
itcoin Classic, [Dou
ble Spend Proofs][8]
per, [BUIP010: Xtrem
e Thinblocks][9], 20
Harding, Peter Todd
[Opt-in Full Replace
-by-Fee Signaling][1
t Bitcoin Troll Army
 Pushes for SegWit A
doption: Emin Gun Si
]: Bitcoin Core 0.12
.0, [Memory pool lim
13]: Nuclear Age Pea
ce Foundation, [Mutu
al Assured Destructi
: John Blocke, [A (b
rief and incomplete)
 history of censorsh
ip in /r/Bitcoin][14
ra73, [A Practical G
uide To Accidental L
ow Fee Transactions]
itcoin Classic, [How
 do SegWit and FlexT
rans compare?][16],
: https://bitcoincor
12]: https://bitcoin
Author's tip jar: 1E
2j0EUK jmQoo80prBlDN+kiwNw9S0iT/QyvQZZKkhDLEAhjc2E=
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8j6BERNSTEIN 1.0 REG 7be01b89-9b12-474d-b914-7c2630b5b94d
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STAR Early Purchase Test Tx
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STAR Early Purchase Test Tx
STAR Early Purchase Test Tx
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.j,EW is this the real thing or just a fantasy?

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blk00924.txt blk00925.txt blk00926.txt blk00927.txt blk00928.txt blk00929.txt blk00930.txt blk00931.txt blk00932.txt blk00933.txt blk00934.txt blk00935.txt blk00936.txt blk00937.txt blk00938.txt blk00939.txt blk00940.txt blk00941.txt Show all files